Archive for November, 2011

South China Sea

Wednesday, November 23rd, 2011

The South China Sea is in the news again, and the question remains: who owns it?

China claims the whole region. The Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Taiwan all disagree.

China claims pretty well all of the South China Sea. Vietnam, the Phillipines, and Malaysia have quite different views.

At stake are the rights to the resources – mostly oil and gas, since the fisheries have been so extensively overexploited, and pollution levels are so high. A huge amount of marine traffic passes through the Sea, raising global interest.

China claims ownership of both the Paracel and the Spratly Islands, lying in the middle of the Sea. No one is particularly interested in living on these islands – they are small and low, mostly rocks and islets. But whoever owns them can claim substantial parts of the South China Sea.

China has put some of its military into garrisons on the Paracels, and is promoting the islands for tourism. It will probably win the ownership game there, despite Vietnam’s protests.

Chinese soldiers training on the Paracel Islands (globalnation.inqirer.net)

Both China and Vietnam claim that their explorers first found the Spratlys a millennium or two ago. But the islands lie just a few km from the Philippine province of Palawan, and the Philippines have administered the islands since WW2. They have have a far stronger claim.

Most disputes concerning the EEZ boundaries of adjacent nations have been worked out by the nations themselves, or by arbitration by the International Court in The Hague, or are under preparation for such arbitration, according to UN Law of the Sea.

But not the South China Sea – probably because China, who claims all of it, including much of the 200 mile EEZ territory of the other coastal countries, won’t get all of it if it goes to UN arbitration.

China would seem to have the advantage, for its sheer size and power would let it enforce its views. But China also needs good relations with its neighbors, and still prefers to work this out through negotiations.

As always China prefers to have bilateral discussions rather than multilateral ones. It also takes a long view, assuming its wishes will prevail eventually. Remember it was early to ratify the UN Law of the Sea, with the intent to work within the law, and over time change the law where it needs changing. The US still hasn’t ratified it.

Air strip in the enticing Spratly Islands

Now all this is back in the news, however briefly, because of last week’s East Asia Summit meetings in Bali. Most of the 18 nations represented spoke up in favor of multinational discussions to resolve the ownership question. Obama, the first US president to attend the meetings, intent on increasing US presence and influence in the region, has encouraging China to listen to others and to negotiate.

The big accomplishment of the meetings is that China didn’t reject the idea. I guess that is progress.

Meanwhile, Vietnam calls the sea the Eastern Sea, while the Philippines calls it the West Philippine Sea. The US is establishing a military base on the north coast of Australia, and China is carrying out navy maneuvers in the region. India wants to begin oil exploration in the Sea.

Secretary of State Clinton at the East Asia summit in Bali. She said that the disputes should be resolved according to the UN Law of the Sea (telegraphjournal,canadadeast.com).

The temperature is clearly rising. So let’s hear it for multinational negotiations, for invoking the UN Law of the Sea through arbitration at The Hague, and for sharing access to the resources in some reasonable fashion.

Yet the end result will be much the same – the seabed will be exploited, China will own or buy most of the resources, and the sea lanes will somehow remain free and open.

Sounds a lot like the situation in the Arctic, where Canada, playing the role of Vietnam or the Philippines, still thinks it is a strong player.

A little real life remains in the Spratlys: a white-tailed tropic bird (virtualtourist.com)

A Network That Works

Friday, November 18th, 2011

It is easy to forget that despite the mess the world is in, there are still successful initiatives, involving a lot of people, communities and organizations.

A remarkable example is a network of communities in the South Pacific that have adopted community-based, adaptive fisheries management. Formally called the Locally-Managed Marine Area Network, or LMMA, it has just celebrated its first ten years of operation and growth.

Its vision is to develop healthy coastal ecosystems and communities, with abundant and sustainable fisheries and, by working together, to take actions that have a high chance of measurable long-term success.

Coastal village in Indonesia (lmmanetwork.org)

Current members are Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Palau, and Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia. Other Pacific island nations such as Kiribati and New Caledonia are exploring membership.

Island nations of the South Pacific. Not identified, in yellow: Indonesia extends west from PNG, and the Philippines lie to the north of Indonesia. Ignore Australia.

In each country, each participating village or group of villages agrees to support the basic vision of the network. Each sets up restricted or tabu areas, free from any fishing, and bans destructive fishing. Important species may be restored. Alternatives to fishing are explored. Mangroves are replanted. And each protects the area from commercial fishermen and poachers.

Diver monitoring site in Fiji (lmmanetwork)

Good communication is critical, of course. Information of successes and failures is freely shared. Villagers are trained to gather and analyse data in order to document the success of initiatives such as banning fishing of replanting mangroves, and they share their knowledge and experience with other communities.

Sharing information at a workshop (lmmanetwork.org)

These really are community-based initiatives. The community makes the decisions, guided by community leaders, with advice from conservation groups and university researchers from the region. Usually an NGO is involved, varying is size from local community-based organizations to WWF and The Nature Conservancy.

Gamma Gades, on the right, is a fisheries warden who helps protect Hinatuan Bay on Mindaneo Island, South Phillipines (lmmanetwork.org)

Ten years of existence is a very short time, and many communities have not been involved nearly that long, yet a new report indicates that the benefits are real. At selected sites in Indonesia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji, fish catches have improved, poverty is less, new jobs (mostly related to tourism) have emerged, health and sanitation are better, local governance has improved, more women are involved, and more children are in school and staying in school.

The LMMA Network council (lmmanetwork.org)

Of course there still are problems. Poaching, intrusion by commercial fishermen, and destructive fishing can be hard to deal with, stressful for those who are trying to enforce the community’s regulations. Alternative jobs to fishing can also be hard to develop or sustain. And teachers can be hard to find to introduce the planned environmental programs in the schools.

But the protected coral reefs are healthier, fish stocks are improving, mangroves are growing, and communities are deeply invested. Increasing numbers of villages are joining the Network – there really is no limit to how big this could all grow. Certainly it has the potential to encompass all the island nations of the Indo-Pacific, and there is no reason to think it should stop there.

A report on poverty reduction where communities have joined the LMMA network.

Where does global warming, with its rising sea levels and ocean acidification, fit in here? Communities include in their objectives ways to adapt to climate change, but adaptation may in some cases be very difficult. Coastal communities participating in the LMMA Network will, however, be able to share their challenges and their solutions.

Hope lies in such rational, evidence-based discussion. The LMMA Network is a model we should look at carefully. Here’s the link again: lmmanetwork.org.