Posts Tagged ‘AIS’

Enforcement

Monday, January 18th, 2016
The Republic of Kiribati lies about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand (searchforone.org)

The Republic of Kiribati lies about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand (searchforone.org)

On Tuesday, June 23, 2015, the Marshalls 203 – a tuna-fishing purse-seiner from the Marshall Islands – crossed into the southwest corner of Kiribati’s recently created Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), and fished there from 4:14 am to 8:16 am.

On June 25, after arranging funds for fuel, Kiribati’s only patrol boat, the RKS Teanoai, set off from the port of Betio to chase it down. On June 29 it was intercepted and escorted back to port, where the captain and crew were imprisoned awaiting prosecution. After a week’s pause for Kiribati’s independence celebrations, its fishing fleet accepted a fine of $1 million US and also agreed to donate a further $1 million US to the Kiribati government as an expression of goodwill. GreenPeace still black listed it.

The poacher: a tuna-fishing purse seiner out of the Marshall Islands, 65 meters long with a crew of 30 (greenpeace.org).

The poacher: a tuna-fishing purse seiner out of the Marshall Islands, 65 meters long with a crew of 30 (greenpeace.org).

Kiribati is an independent, economically challenged Pacific island country with about 100,000 human inhabitants living on some of the 33 small islands strung out in several clusters over the equator. Its EEZ includes 3.5 million sq km of ocean. In January 2015 it created PIPA within that EEZ, a huge area of 408,000 sq km where it banned all commercial fishing.

Kiritimati (once known as Christmas Island) is the largest mountain top island in Kiribati. The port of Betio in on the famous Tarawa Atoll, 3,300 km to the west. (worldatlas.com)

Kiritimati (once known as Christmas Island) is the largest mountain top island in Kiribati. The port of Betio in on the famous Tarawa Atoll, 3,300 km to the west. (worldatlas.com)

Another map of Kiribati and its EEZ depicted as pale blue discs. PIPA is the darker blue square in the middle of the discs. (wikipedia.com)

Another map of Kiribati and its EEZ depicted as pale blue discs. PIPA is the darker blue square in the middle of the discs. (wikipedia.com)

PIPA, the Phoenix Islands Protected Area, includes 8 small, mostly unihahbited islands, one atoll, and as many as 30 underwater seamounts, all in 4000-6000 meters of water, a prime region for tuna migrations (phoenixislands.org)

PIPA, the Phoenix Islands Protected Area, includes 8 small, mostly unihahbited islands, one atoll, and as many as 30 underwater seamounts, all in 4000-6000 meters of water, a prime region for tuna migrations (phoenixislands.org)

And right there is the challenge: How can Kiribati, with virtually no resources of its own besides a single patrol boat, enforce responsible, sustainable fishing in a large piece of the Pacific Ocean? A poacher’s paradise, you would think, and yet clearly it isn’t.

Why not?

Not surprisingly perhaps, chasing down the tuna-poaching purse-seiner depended on considerable international funds as well as the extraordinary tracking technology that now exists.

The funding for enforcement has come mainly from the WIATT Foundation (which supports programs on ocean health) and from Oceans 5 (dedicated to protecting the 5 oceans by stopping overfishing and establishing marine reserves) – altogether $i million US per year for 5 yrs.

But remote tracking made the detection and arrest of the poaching tuna-fishing vessel possible. The newest technology is Automatic Identification System (AIS) that involves a shipboard VHF transmitter, along with a GPS receiver, allowing tracking by satellites and shore stations. Though AIS was developed so that ships wouldn’t collide in crowded coastal waters, it has been expanded through Global Fishing Watch, a collaboration of SkyTruth, Oceana and Google for monitoring the activity of the globe’s fishing vessels.

It does look impressive – Global Fishing Watch’s website is worth looking at. The prototype has been running for a couple of years, using billions of data points as it tracks hundreds of thousands of vessels, and it can convincingly distinguish between a vessel that is fishing and one that isn’t. The poaching tuna-fishing vessel Marshalls 203 was identified and tracked through AIS, and you can check for yourself what that or any AIS equipped vessel is up to.

Global Fishing Watch is intended to be available for everyone to use, not just look at, and should be public sometime this year. It is likely to be used more and more – for instance Indonesia is adopting it to detect unwanted foreign vessels fishing in its waters.

Is it fool-proof? Hardly.

We are a sneaky species, and among our greatest talents is our ability to cheat. There are lots of ways to manipulate AIS, some obvious (just turn it off) others not. Another internet service, Windward, is helping to detect some of the cheating, but of course cheating just gets more sophisticated.

Probably the great strength of AIS is that a vessel can use it to prove that it has been fishing legally. The next step is for ports to accept fish only from vessels that can show such proof – and that is a likely development in many places.

So AIS remains an exciting technology that will will reduce illegal fishing, especially where countries have few other resources to monitor and protect their EEZs.

This helps.

Yellowfin Tuna, hunted by long-liner and purse seiner across the Pacific, now protected within PIPA, still is overfished and threatened (worldwildlife.org)

Yellowfin Tuna, hunted by long-liner and purse seiner across the Pacific, now protected within PIPA, still is overfished and threatened (worldwildlife.org)